COLD WAR 1950-75
1950: Korean War! The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea.
1953: Death of Stalin. Joseph Stalin died at the age of 74. He was first succeeded by a collective leadership but by 1955 Nikita Khrushchev had emerged as the new leader.
1953: Korean War. The Korean War ended. North Korea remained affiliated with Russia while South Korea was affiliated with the USA.
1954: Geneva Accords. This set of documents ended the French war with the Vietminh and divided Vietnam into North and South states. The communist leader of North Vietnam was Ho Chi Minh while the US friendly south was led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
1955: Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact was formed with member states East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Albania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union.
1956: Hungarian Revolution. This began as a Hungarian protest against Communist rule in Budapest. It quickly gathered momentum and on 24th October Soviet tanks entered Budapest. The tanks withdrew on 28th October and a new government was formed which quickly moved to introduce democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. The Soviet tanks returned on 4th November encircling Budapest. The Prime Minister Imre Nagy made a World broadcast that Hungary was under attack from the Soviet Union and calling for aid. Hungary fell to Russia on 10th November 1956.
1956: Suez Crisis. Following military bombardment by Israeli forces, a joint British and French force invaded Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal which had been nationalized by the Egyptian leader Nasser. The attack was heavily criticized by World leaders, especially America because Russia had offered support to Egypt. The British and French were forced to withdraw and a UN peace keeping force was sent to establish order.
1957: Space Race! USSR Sputnik I and Sputnik II. Sputnik II carried Laika the dog, the first living creature to go into space.
1960: Paris East/West talks. Talks between Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower concerning the fate of Germany broke down when a USA U2 spy plane was shot down over Russian airspace.
1961: Space Race. Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human being in space.
1961: Cuba – Bay of Pigs Invasion. A force of Cuban exiles, trained by the CIA, aided by the US government attempted to invade Cuba and overthrow the Communist government of Fidel Castro. The attempt failed.
1961: Berlin Wall. Berlin Wall built and borders sealed between East and West Germany.
1962: Cuban Missile Crisis. A US spy plane reported sighting the construction of a Soviet nuclear missile base in Cuba. President Kennedy set up a naval blockade and demanded the removal of the missiles. War was averted when the Russians agreed on 28th October to remove the weapons. The United States agreed not to invade Cuba.
1963: JFK Assassination. JF Kennedy was assassinated while on a visit to Dallas. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder but there has always been speculation that he was not a lone killer and that there may have been communist or CIA complicity.
1964: USSR – Nikita Krushchev removed from office. He was replaced by Leonid Brezhnev.
1965: US involvement in the Vietnam War. 150,000 US troops sent to Vietnam.
1968: Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Warsaw Pact forces entered Czechoslovakia in a bid to stop the reforms known as ’Prague Spring’ instigated by Alexander Dubcek. When he refused to halt his program of reforms Dubcek was arrested. Later he was forced out of office and became an inspector of the forest…
1968: Space Race. US launched Apollo 8 – first manned orbit of the Moon.
1969: Space Race. US Apollo 11 landed on the Moon and Neil Armstrong became the first man on the Moon.
1970: Vietnam War. President Richard Nixon ordered US troops to go to Cambodia.
1971: Four Power Agreement Berlin. The Four Power Agreement made between Russia, USA, Britain and France reconfirmed the rights and responsibilities of those countries with regard to Berlin.
1972: SALT. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty signed between the US and USSR.
1973: Vietnam. The Paris Peace Accords ended American involvement in Vietnam.
1975: Cambodia. Killing fields. The Khmer Rouge attacked and took control of Cambodia. Any supporters of the former regime, anyone with links or supposed links to foreign governments as well as many intellectuals and professionals were executed in a genocide that became known as the ’killing fields’.
1975: Vietnam. North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam. The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese led to the whole country becoming Communist
Essay Question 2: ”Korean War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Compare/contrast causes, course and results”
WORK WITH ESSAY QUESTION 2: Since this is a direct question that involves two crises, the outline (structure) is simpler than that for question one. The following parts should be included in the answer:
Background to the conflicts in Korea/Cuba
Reasons why the war/crisis breaks out?
The process – how do the events develop?
Any turning point?
The results of the Korean War/Cuban Missile Crisis
How do the ”Superpowers” react: before/during/after the war/crisis?
Historiography – what do historians (theories) say about this war/this crisis?
COLD WAR MADNESS (pages 244-247): The super bomb / Mutually Assured Destruction / Constant alert / The ”nuclear club” expands / SALT
ALTERNATIVE BATTLEFIELDS: CHESS, SPORT AND SPACE (pages 248-251): Chess / Sport / Space / Sputnik / The first space dog / The first man in space
AMERICA AND THE COMMUNIST THREAT (pages 252-273)
CASE STUDY ONE: The Korean War 1950-53 (pages 252-253): Background to the war / The United Nations / North versus South / The war itself / Consequences of the war in Korea
CASE STUDY TWO: Cuba (pages 254-255): “A hedgehog in Uncle Sam’s pants” / Consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis